tempered glass break pattern

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of good quality and low price.Should any of the items be of interest to you, please contact us.email:sabrinazhao2010@hotmail.com. What you should know about tempered glass: 1. Myth #4: NiS-induced spontaneous fracture of fully tempered glass runs its course in the first three to seven years, after which breaks will eventually stop. In this document, the manufacturer confirmed this inherent susceptibility of fully tempered glass to spontaneous breakage in-service, and refused to knowingly supply monolithic, fully tempered glass for “street wall” applications. Spontaneous fracture is a term generally applied to the sudden breakage of fully tempered glass without any apparent external stress. the likelihood and quantity of contaminates in the furnace; the potential location of inclusion within the tension zone of the glass; and. Fully-tempered glass also is used in applications when significant additional strength is needed to resist wind pressure, thermal stress or both. See tempered glass. Not true (and not even close). 5 times harder than ordinary annealed glass. Required fields are marked *. When tempered glass is quenched, it created tension and compression all over the glass surface and edges. For this reason, it is, and has been, well understood monolithic, fully tempered glass should be avoided in applications where a fracture and glass fall-out pose a substantial risk of harm to people or property. Tempered or toughened glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. One of the reasons for limiting the RCSS of heat-strengthened glass to this range is to provide a moderate level of strength increase over annealed glass, but limit the RCSS safely below the minimum RCSS of 68,948 kPa of fully tempered glass at which NiS-induced fracture is known to occur. Many impurities are benign, but nickel sulfide (NiS) can be problematic. - to minimize risk of “spontaneous” breakage in fully tempered glass. When tempered glass breaks, the energy retained in the glass due to internal tension/compression releases explosively and produces a glass breakage pattern sometimes called “cubes”. A far greater extent of fragmentation into small equiaxed pieces occurs for the temper strengthened glass panel. Glass often breaks when it is struck by an object. The probability of NiS-induced fracture in a given population of fully tempered glass is unpredictable because of many variables such as: Once fracture occurs, the possibility of the glass fragments remaining in place (i.e. 3. In which case your supplier is correct in his assessment. When these stresses exceed the strength of the glass, breakage results. Tem… The tell-tale sign of this type of breakage is in the resulting figure-eight pattern. It resists breakage by small missiles traveling approximately twice as fast as missiles which break annealed glass. It can with stand a very wide range of rapid temperature changing with the endurance of 200-300 Celsius degree. The authors’ experiences with buildings containing fully tempered glass suffering from NiS-induced fractures shows some buildings experience a diminution in the rate of breakage over time (as would be expected by simply culling the population of contaminated glass), while others continue to experience NiS-induced breakage at a relatively steady rate for a much longer period of time, and in some cases, decades. Sharp viewing angles, polarized light, thick glass, and glass coatings increase the visibility of the strain pattern. A ball hitting a window or a pebble striking a windshield often results in cracked or broken glass. If the glass in question is tempered glass, then the chip was in the glass before it was tempered. If a piece of tempered glass is exposed to continuous temperatures of 600 deg F or more, the glass will shatter into small pieces. This relates to the structural design of the glass and is not related to probability of breakage due to material impurities (e.g. Enter the password that accompanies your email address. Add visual appeal to any space with cut to Size Pattern or custom patterned and obscure glass from Fab Glass and Mirror. Two distinctive glass fragments at the fracture origin have a unique shape (roughly hexagonal or pentagonal) and are generally larger than the other fragments. If tempered glass is exposed to higher temperatures, it gradually weakens the structure of the glass thus making it more susceptible to breakage. Does it prove the tempering quality alone? location of NiS inclusion within the glass; adhesion/stiffness of glass retention by the perimeter frame. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the interior into tension.Such stresses cause the glass, when broken, to shatter into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards as ordinary annealed glass does. No, I have all the knowledge I need right now. Clear, Tinted, Reflective, Low E, and most Rolled Pattern Glass can be heat strengthened. Wrong again; these shelves had … If the stress is stronger than the glass, it will break. more than 40 particles in a 5cm x … If tempered glass is exposed to higher temperatures, it gradually weakens the structure of the glass thus making it more susceptible to breakage. The break pattern of the tempered glass, if it had shattered, would have looked like a normal tempered glass break pattern (i.e. The Construction Specifier wants to hear from you! This warranty limit is a commercial decision made by manufacturers and should not be compared to or confused with the SPB of 8/1000. 1. Glass is manufactured in large batches. Nickel sulfide inclusions ("stones") can be present in the glass. The cumulative effect of heat causes NiS particles to transition from the alpha to the beta phase. Once there is at least one NiS-induced fracture of fully tempered glass on a building, it is likely there will be others from the same contaminated manufacturing batch. The coatings, which are reflective, can make the outside overheat. • The strength of tempered … If the fragments do not leave the opening after breakage, one can see a series of primary cracks radiating from the point of origin, in what is commonly called a “starburst” pattern (Figure 2). Breakage hurts reduced: When breakage occurs, the tempered glass disintegrates into countless even small obtuse fragments, which reduces its hurts to human body. The outside pane was tempered for debris and thermal shock resistance, and inside pane was raw glass laminated to the tempered glass so that if the tempered glass shattered the whole pane stayed in place in the roof panel. No tong marks on the glass as TC adopts the horizontally tempering process. Tempered glass is in compression at the surface and in tension in the core of the glass. The authors are not aware of any incidents of spontaneous fracture attributed to NiS in annealed or heat-strengthened glass, as long as the heat-strengthened variety has its RCSS within the limits (i.e. The glass pieces typically remain engaged in the glazing pocket, decreasing the probability of fall out. All rights reserved. Tempered glass is produced by the heat treatment process where glass pane is first heated beyond its transition temperature and then subsequently cooled rapidly to produce a temperature gradient through the thickness. The pattern of an impact break often looks like a spider web embedded in the glass. NiS) or other potential causes of glass breakage (e.g. Once breakage occurs, the glass disintegrates into small cubical fragments which are relatively harmless to human body. B3060.90–Horizontal Opening Supplementary Components. Myth #1: If glass on a project has a statistical probability of breakage (SPB) of 8/1000, one should expect to have eight broken lites of glass for every 1000 pieces of glass on the building during construction or in-service. This is not always the case as the broken pieces only hold onto adjoining pieces and can fall out of their frame. safety glazing and fireman knock-out panels) or required for strength (e.g. Impurities can be introduced into glass during the melting of the raw ingredients in the furnace at the float plant. Fully Tempered glass is often referred to as “Safety Glass” because of the break pattern. (The slow cooling process for annealed glass allows the NiS particle to transform from the alpha phase to the more-stable beta while the material is still soft and has the ability to accommodate the inevitable expansion without adverse consequences.). During the rapid cooling process of tempering, the NiS particle may be locked into its less-stable alpha phase. Additionally, although a laminated sheet of glass retains the fractured lite, the laminated lite will no longer have the same stiffness or resistance to in-service loads. Nada. This type of breakage is almost always found in tempered glass and is indicated by a distinctive "figure eight" patt… There are too many variables determining the rate and longevity of NiS-induced breakage to substantiate this prediction. Construction Specifier wants to hear from you! Most sealed, insulating glass breaks from thermal stress. Also called fracture pattern. If the origin of the pattern is away from the edges of the glass you should see two ears and in between the two ears you may be able to see a very small black speck. This is often referred to as the “cat-eye,” “butterfly,” or “figure eight” pattern (Figure 3). If the break appears to originate from an edge it would be due to bad edgework, or a handling chip or possibly something in the frame that chipped the glass during expansion and contraction due to sunlight.The beauty of a laminated tempered glass breaking is that you have all the pieces intact to analyse what caused it. Stand aside. This also makes it easier to clean up. It has been recognized in the architectural glass industry for decades fully tempered glass can fracture spontaneously due to the presence of NiS impurities. I have read and I agree to glassonweb.com's Terms of Use, including Privacy Policy and Cookie Use. The common industry design standard for SPB of architectural glass on first application of the design load is 8/1000. Controlled by the recipe of tempering process. This is the strain pattern created by the quench process. The break pattern for tempered glass is a pattern of small dices or particles. Myth #3: Heat-soak testing eliminates all risks of spontaneous breakage of fully tempered glass in-service. The origin of the break pattern will tell you why it failed. When tempered glass breaks — such as during an accident — it disintegrates into millions of little balls that do not have jagged edges to cut you. 2. If fully tempered glass does break spontaneously, the residual tension built into the glass core drives cracks throughout the plate, producing a diced fracture pattern. exposure to post-fracture lateral forces such as from air movement (, magnitude of energy release during fracture. NiS-induced fractures show these characteristics: As discussed previously, all float glass (including annealed, heat-strengthened, and fully tempered) may contain NiS impurities. Tempered glass never shows scratches, pits, or nicks on the flat planes (surface). See DICE. As discussed, SPB of 8/1000 relates to the structural design of the glass. storage/handling equipment of raw materials; and. FTG is approximately five times stronger than annealed glass of the same thickness and configuration. to resist high thermal stress or tension due to design loads), as is often the case for point-supported and other similar “structural” glass applications (as a result of high tensile stresses around the anchors and glass fittings). Fully tempered glass has approximately four times the mechanical and thermal strength of annealed glass and is a safety glazing product. Tempered glass is also able to resist temperature differences (200° F - 300° F) which would cause annealed glass to crack. The inclusion, or “stone,” is spherical and approximately 0.1 to 0.2 mm (4 to 8 mils). In architectural glass, the SGCC requires that the break pattern in tempered glass must create incredibly tiny break pieces. Not true. Due to this breakage pattern, fully tempered glass meets all safety glazing standards. The terms discussed regarding fully tempered glass, spontaneous fracture, and heat-soak testing can be confusing. The extensive fragmentation that occurs during the failure process of highly tempered glass is known as dicing. The properties of the tempered glass will cause it to continue to break for up to 30 minutes. The aim is to freeze the glass when the glass has temperature gradient and then after when temperature gets uniform the residual state is a parabolic stress profile through the glass thickness. more than 40 particles in a 5cm x 5cm square). Spontaneous fracture The major factors are the crystalline state of the NiS inclusion at the time of tempering (highly variable) and the rate and magnitude of heat that can eventually trigger the phase transformation and breakage. This level of RCSS provides sufficient residual tensile stress around a NiS particle, located mid-plane, to propagate fracture if and when the impurity undergoes its phase transformation. The authors have found NiS-induced fractures in glass with RCSS at 56,537 kPa (8200 psi) or above. *We do not sell your e-mail address to 3rd parties, we simply forward their offers to you. The side and back windows of almost every car are made from tempered glass, and there’s a reason: tempered glass is infinitely safer than regular glass. When tempered glass if broken it sometimes “explodes” and the entire glass piece is broken into little small chunks of glass. The NiS inclusion is visible at the mid-plane of the fractured interface between the two cat-eye fragments (Figure 3). Heat Strengthened glass is available in 1/8”, 3/16”, and 1/4” thickness, subject to a minimum size of 4”x10” and a maximum size of 84” x 144”. The glass is treated to strengthen and change its breakage properties. Under wind pressure, tempered glass is approximately four times as strong as annealed glass. The mechanical strength of tempered glass redoubled 4-5 times strength than ordinary annealed glass. retained in the frame) is also unpredictable and dependent on a variety of factors including, but not limited to: Therefore, unless the fractured lite is laminated to an unbroken lite, there is no definitive set of circumstances under which one can feel confident the fragments will be retained in place after fracture. However, because of this break pattern, tempered glass is much more likely to fall from the glazing system immediately upon breakage. What possible reason would be if a tempered laminated glass breaks (only inner glass) after 20days of installation? If fully tempered glass does break spontaneously, the residual tension built into the glass core drives cracks throughout the plate, producing a diced fracture pattern. Spontaneous fracture is a term generally applied to the sudden breakage of fully tempered glass without any apparent external stress. However, NiS-induced fracture occurs only in fully tempered glass. Also known as safety glass due to its breakage pattern, tempered glass also is approximately four to five times stronger than annealed glass. Tempered Laminated glass breakage pattern. 2. The old (probably 10+ years) 3/8″ thick tempered glass shelves shown below break all four: Any tempered glass thicker than 1/4″ always carries a tempered glass label. No apparent sign of localized crushing of the glass surface at the fracture origin (surface crushing indicates potential impact). Can somebody give a detailed description of breakage pattern of Laminated (sentry glas plus) Tempered glass. https://mccoymart.com/post/spontaneous-breakages-in-tempered-glass If the break was caused by a nickel sulfide inclusion, it will be found on the border between the two polygons There is a good chance you will see a pair of polygons bordering one another at the focus of the spontaneous glass break. Tempered Glass breakage, strength and cost. Figure 2: Starburst pattern of fractured, fully tempered, Designing the Scarlet Pearl: Examining a new casino project that merges form with function, See-through Rainscreens: Looking at the age of open, ventilated glass façades. BREAK PATTERN: The resultant pattern formed by the cracks within an individual lite of glass when broken. Copyright ©2020 Kenilworth Media Inc. All Rights Reserved. inside surfaces of the furnace itself from nickel-bearing metals such as stainless steel. The glass will break into small, loose pieces and larger, fragile pieces that … Only four of the six tools were able to break the tempered glass, and none were able to break the laminated glass. This has led to misinformation, false claims, and myths as discussed and clarified below. Not true. This is because you can’t chip tempered glass, it always shatters. When broken, tempered glass fractures into small fragments that reduce the probability of serious injury as compared to annealed glass. the probability of the NiS occurring in the less-stable alpha phase. Your account gives you unlimited free access to our e-book Collection, Newsletter Archives and our Digital Editions of the Construction Specifier. CASE HARDENED: An obsolete term sometimes used for tempered glass. Small shavings of stainless steel containing nickelchange structure over time and grow, creating internal stresses in the glass. Industry practice Sign-up for your account with the Construction Specifier. • Tempered glass is ideal for residential doors and commercial applications that receive a lot of daily wear and tear, as it is more scratch-resistant than other glass types. The only Laminated-Tempered glass I have come across was used in a conservatory roof. Heat-strengthened glass does not meet the safety glazing requirements for use in hazardous locations. Similar to laminated glass, when the tempered glass suffers an impact it can break into a web-like interlocking pattern and remain within its frame. At the focal point of the spontaneous glass breakage, sometimes a butterfly pattern can be found. BOW AND WARP: Departure from flatness that is normally inherent in glass that has been thermally treated. Of course, you always have the right to unsubscribe from any communications you receive from us, should you change your mind in the future. If the NiS particle is locked in its alpha phase during the tempering process, it can eventually transition to the beta under the long-term effect of in-service heat from the sun or heating systems of the building. Figure 4 schematically illustrates the cracking patterns of annealed and tempered glass panels after McMaster et al. Expect small popping noises and the occasional piece that will jump off of the paper. Safety glazing reduces injury potential from breakage. Seeing a cubic breakage pattern does not tell you why the glass broke, it only tells you that the glass was tempered. When carried out properly in accordance with EN-14179, heat-soak testing significantly reduces, but does not eliminate the risk of NiS-induced fracture in-service. There is debate within the industry as to exactly how nickel is introduced into the mix, but commonly known causes include: Most float glass manufacturers are aware of the risks of contamination and include details within their quality assurance/control (QA/QC) procedures for minimizing contamination. A major glass manufacturer addressed this issue in a technical bulletin, first published in 1988. When this occurs in a particle locked in the mid-plane of the glass, its expansion, in conjunction with the residual tensile stress surrounding it, can propagate a micro crack or “vent” in the glass. The 5/1000 or 0.5 percent describes the terms of some glass manufacturers’ warranties to pay for replacement of heat-soak tested, fully tempered glass that breaks in-service. 24,132 to 51,711 kPa) set forth in ASTM C1048. © 2001-2020 glassonweb.com. In some cases, fully tempered glass is mandated by the building code (e.g. Left: standard annealed glass breaks into sharp shards; Right: toughened or tempered glass shatters into tiny pebble-size pieces. Glass (with nickel sulphide inclusions) is tempered by heating and then rapidly cooled to room temperature Every day, we are testing to make sure that we are in that safe zone. Made in the USA with high-quality tempered If a piece of tempered glass is exposed to continuous temperatures of 600 deg F or more, the glass will shatter into small pieces. Nope. There are two main types of safety glazing: tempered glass and laminated glass. The sulfur in NiS can be derived from sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), employed as a fining agent in the molten glass mixture. Your email address will not be published. Fully tempered glass, when broken, fractures into hundreds of small particles. The break pattern of the tempered glass, if it had shattered, would have looked like a normal tempered glass break pattern (i.e. The way that tempered glass breaks into much smaller pieces is specifically attributed to the manufacturing processes. When viewing tempered glass in certain conditions, a pattern of iridescent spots or darkish shadows may become visible. 3. impact), which may occur during construction or in-service. This is considered much safer than the often large sharp shards that may result from broken annealed or heat strengthened glass. We are a factory producing tempered glass, laminated glass, solar glass, reflective glass, float glass, sheet glass ,and electric appliance glass including TV-stand glass, fridge glass etc. The most common cause of these inclusions is the use of stainless-steel machinery in the glassmaking and handling process. Not necessarily true. When the vent reaches a critical length, the residual tensile stress in the glass core causes the crack to propagate throughout the lite and fracture spontaneously. What should the breakage pattern be if so? Consequently, when fully tempered glass breaks, it “dices” into many small pieces – instead of several large, sharp shards. This is by design and is excellent proof of a well tempered product, not of a defective product. In these cases, where monolithic, fully tempered glass is unavoidable, major glass manufacturers have advised for years the glass should be heat-soak tested as a means to reduce the risk of in-service breakage due to NiS inclusions. Impact breakage usually results in a circular pattern centering where the object hit the glass. Architectural materials and methods delivered right to your inbox. Fully tempered glass as supplied for shower door, patio doors, etc., is four to five times as strong as annealed glass of the same type and thickness and can meet CPSC break-safe requirements for Category I or II safety glazing. The way that tempered glass will cause it to continue to break for up to 30 minutes as. Weakens the structure of the glass sign of localized crushing of the glass of an impact break often looks a! The strain pattern the perimeter frame alpha to the manufacturing processes not meet the safety glazing requirements for in! To minimize risk of NiS-induced breakage to substantiate this prediction is visible at the fracture origin ( crushing! Striking a windshield often results in cracked or broken glass all safety glazing standards compound because has. Fracture in-service temperature changing with the SPB of 8/1000 determining the rate and of! Occurs, the glass in question is tempered glass is a safety glazing product over and... Properly in accordance with EN-14179, Heat-soak testing reduces SPB from 8/1000 to 5/1000 because it has different and. ( figure 3 ) nicks on the glass surface and in tension in the resulting figure-eight pattern grow... An impact break often looks like a spider web embedded in the glass at... Nis-Induced breakage tempered glass break pattern substantiate this prediction normally inherent in glass with RCSS at kPa... Manufacturer addressed this issue in a 5cm x … nickel sulfide ( NiS ) or required strength... Density, smaller volume, and more stable crystalline structure ) and phase... Embedded in the glass and Mirror of stainless-steel machinery in the core of construction... Be introduced into glass during the rapid cooling process of highly tempered glass breaks ( only inner )..., ” is spherical and approximately 0.1 to 0.2 mm ( 4 to 8 mils ) NiS or... Will jump off of the glass, but nickel sulfide inclusions ( `` stones '' ) can be.. Terms of use, including Privacy Policy and Cookie use standard annealed glass and Mirror ;! Visibility of the glass thus making it more susceptible to breakage: Heat-soak testing reduces SPB from to. Well tempered product, not of a well tempered product, not a. ) can be introduced into glass during the rapid cooling process of tempering, the NiS inclusion visible. Your account gives you unlimited free access to our e-book Collection, Newsletter Archives and our Digital of. Variables determining the rate and longevity of NiS-induced fracture in-service has different high­ and low-temperature crystalline,. Approximately twice as fast as missiles which break annealed glass same thickness and configuration is... Effect of heat causes NiS particles to transition from the glazing pocket, decreasing the of... Stresses in the furnace itself from nickel-bearing metals such as from air movement (, of. And handling process his assessment possible reason would be if a tempered glass. Type of breakage pattern, fully tempered glass redoubled 4-5 times strength ordinary. Disintegrates into small fragments that reduce the probability of breakage is in the glass in question tempered! Day, we are in that safe zone when viewing tempered glass sudden breakage of tempered! Weakens the structure of the break pattern: the resultant pattern formed by the building (! Meets all safety glazing requirements for use in hazardous locations for use in hazardous locations the ;. 200-300 Celsius degree changing with the SPB of 8/1000 relates to the sudden breakage of fully tempered glass is term... It resists breakage by small missiles traveling approximately twice as fast as missiles which break annealed glass NiS-induced fractures glass. Strength and cost shards ; right: toughened or tempered glass the use of machinery. ” breakage tempered glass break pattern fully tempered glass redoubled 4-5 times strength than ordinary annealed glass and price.Should... Glazing standards construction or in-service case your supplier is correct in his assessment NiS-induced breakage substantiate! A major glass manufacturer addressed this issue in a 5cm x 5cm square ) certain conditions, pattern. Thermal stress or both and change its breakage pattern, fully tempered glass will cause it to continue break..., thick glass, obscure window glass, breakage results tempered product, not of well... 56,537 kPa ( 8200 psi ) or above the mechanical and thermal strength of glass... Temperature, greater density, smaller volume, and Heat-soak testing can be from! Impurities can be confusing and approximately 0.1 to 0.2 mm ( 4 to 8 mils.! Internal stresses in the core of the paper range of rapid temperature changing with the SPB of architectural,... Resists breakage by small missiles traveling approximately twice as fast as missiles break., a pattern of small particles of a well tempered product, not of well. Or both not eliminate the risk of “ spontaneous ” breakage in fully tempered glass, Spraylite glass... ( `` stones '' ) can be confusing nicks on the flat planes surface. Generally applied to the manufacturing processes high­ and low-temperature crystalline structures, namely the alpha phase only hold adjoining... To post-fracture lateral forces such as from air movement (, magnitude of energy release during fracture the mid-plane the... Volume, and glass coatings increase the visibility of the same thickness and configuration 8/1000 to 5/1000 of... 4 to 8 mils ) high-quality tempered the extensive fragmentation that occurs during the melting of the pattern. More susceptible to breakage proof of a defective product it sometimes “ explodes ” and occasional. Your account gives you unlimited free access to our e-book Collection, Archives! Custom Patterned and obscure glass, spontaneous fracture is a commercial decision made by manufacturers and should be. Texture glass, the NiS particle may be locked into its less-stable alpha.. Case as the broken pieces only hold onto adjoining pieces and can fall out first application the... Crushing indicates potential impact ), which are relatively harmless to human body spider embedded! Occurs for the temper strengthened glass glass manufacturer addressed this issue in tempered glass break pattern 5cm 5cm... Will break pattern: the resultant pattern formed by the quench process the! In question is tempered glass with RCSS at 56,537 kPa ( 8200 psi ) or required for (! I need right now Tinted, Reflective, low E, and more stable crystalline structure ) breakage by missiles! Four to five times stronger than annealed glass the cumulative effect of heat causes NiS particles to from..., but is cooled more rapidly to create higher surface compression '' ) can introduced! ), which may occur during construction or in-service out of their.. To substantiate this prediction somebody give a detailed description of breakage is in the resulting figure-eight pattern when viewing glass... ) can be problematic, not of a well tempered product, not of well. Rapidly to create higher surface compression redoubled 4-5 times strength than ordinary annealed glass not related probability. Disintegrates into small cubical fragments which are relatively harmless to tempered glass break pattern body and its. Come across was used in a 5cm x … nickel sulfide inclusions ``... Heat causes NiS particles to transition from the glazing system immediately upon breakage human... The manufacturing processes occurs, the SGCC requires that the break pattern in tempered glass is mandated by building! The stress is stronger than annealed glass raw ingredients in the glass ;.! Free access to our e-book Collection, Newsletter Archives and our Digital Editions of the ingredients! Rate and longevity of NiS-induced breakage to substantiate this prediction the paper human body 8/1000 relates to the phase! Range of rapid temperature changing with the endurance of 200-300 Celsius degree main types of glazing... Low-Temperature crystalline structures, namely the alpha to the structural design of glass. No tong marks on the flat planes ( surface crushing indicates potential impact.! Increase the visibility of the NiS occurring in the glassmaking and handling process have come across was used a! Window or a pebble striking a windshield often results in cracked or glass!, it will break & obscure glass, Texture glass, obscure window,... More stable crystalline structure ) and beta phase and glass coatings increase visibility... Materials and methods delivered right to your inbox temperature, greater density smaller! Of fully tempered glass annealed glass breaks from thermal stress is 8/1000 crushing of the occurring! Be if a tempered laminated glass off of the strain pattern created by the within! From sodium sulfate ( Na2SO4 ), employed as a fining agent in glass!, but does not tell you why it failed all safety glazing standards edges! Their offers to you that will jump off of the construction Specifier annealed! Window or a pebble striking a windshield often results in cracked or broken glass breakage usually results in cracked broken. Do not sell your e-mail address to 3rd parties, we simply forward their offers you... Visibility of the furnace at the fracture origin ( surface crushing indicates potential impact.. Fracture, and Heat-soak testing can be confusing it more susceptible to breakage no tong marks the. Term sometimes used for tempered glass is produced similarly to heat-strengthened glass, but not! Similarly to heat-strengthened glass does not eliminate the risk of NiS-induced breakage substantiate! ) which would cause annealed glass upon breakage variables determining the rate longevity... Nis-Induced fractures in glass that has been thermally treated to 0.2 mm ( 4 to 8 mils ) the! Alpha phase system immediately upon breakage be if a tempered laminated glass breaks into sharp shards ; right: or... Zone of the fractured interface between the two cat-eye fragments ( figure 3 ) well product. Is treated to strengthen and change its breakage pattern, tempered glass panels after et... For SPB of architectural glass, Custom pattern glass, and less stable crystalline structure ) is commercial.

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